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Structural Health Monitoring of Large Civil Engineering Structures

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Descripción

A critical review of key developments and latest advances in Structural Health Monitoring technologies applied to civil engineering structures, covering all aspects required for practical application


Características

  • ISBN: 978-1-119-16663-4
  • Páginas: 328
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2018

Disponibilidad: 3 a 7 Días

Contenido Structural Health Monitoring of Large Civil Engineering Structures

A critical review of key developments and latest advances in Structural Health Monitoring technologies applied to civil engineering structures, covering all aspects required for practical application

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) provides the facilities for in-service monitoring of structural performance and damage assessment, and is a key element of condition based maintenance and damage prognosis. This comprehensive book brings readers up to date on the most important changes and advancements in the structural health monitoring technologies applied to civil engineering structures. It covers all aspects required for such monitoring in the field, including sensors and networks, data acquisition and processing, damage detection techniques and damage prognostics techniques. The book also includes a number of case studies showing how the techniques can be applied in the development of sustainable and resilient civil infrastructure systems.

Structural Health Monitoring of Large Civil Engineering Structures offers in-depth chapter coverage of: Sensors and Sensing Technology for Structural Monitoring; Data Acquisition, Transmission, and Management; Structural Damage Identification Techniques; Modal Analysis of Civil Engineering Structures; Finite Element Model Updating; Vibration Based Damage Identification Methods; Model Based Damage Assessment Methods; Monitoring Based Reliability Analysis and Damage Prognosis; and Applications of SHM Strategies to Large Civil Structures.

Presents state-of-the-art SHM technologies allowing asset managers to evaluate structural performance and make rational decisions

Covers all aspects required for the practical application of SHM

Includes case studies that show how the techniques can be applied in practice

Structural Health Monitoring of Large Civil Engineering Structures is an ideal book for practicing civil engineers, academics and postgraduate students studying civil and structural engineering

TABLE CONTENTS

Preface

Biography

1 Introduction to Structural Health Monitoring


  1.1 Advances in Structural Health Monitoring Technology
     1.1.1 Structural Health in Civil Engineering
     1.1.2 Aims of Structural Health Monitoring
     1.1.3 Development of SHM Methods
  1.2 Structural Health Monitoring System and Strategy
     1.2.1 SHM System and its Components
     1.2.2 SHM Strategy and Method
  1.3 Potential Benefits of SHM in Civil Engineering
     1.3.1 Character of SHM in Civil Engineering
     1.3.2 Potential Benefits of SHM
  1.4 Challenges and Further Work of SHM
     1.4.1 Challenges of SHM in Civil Engineering
     1.4.2 Further Work on SHM for Practical Applications
  1.5 Concluding
Remarks
References

2 Sensors and Sensing Technology for Structural Monitoring

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Sensor Types
2.3 Sensor Measurements in Structural Monitoring
    2.3.1 Structural Responses
    2.3.2 Environmental Quantities
    2.3.3 Operational Quantities
    2.3.4 Typical Quantities for Bridge Monitoring
    2.3.5 Example of an SHM System – a Suspension Bridge (I)
2.4 Fibre Optic Sensors
    2.4.1 Classification of Fibre Optic Sensors  
    2.4.2 Typical Fibre Optic Sensors in SHM
    2.4.3 Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Monitoring
2.5 Wireless Sensors
    2.5.1 Components of Wireless Sensors
    2.5.2 Field Deployment in Civil Infrastructure
2.6 Optimum Sensor Selection and Placement
    2.6.1 Factors for Sensor Selection
    2.6.2 Optimal Sensor Placement
2.7 Case Study
    2.7.1 Sensors and Sensing System for SHM
    2.7.2 Installation of FBG Sensors
2.8 Concluding
Remarks
References

3 Data Acquisition, Transmission and Management

3.1 Introduction 51
3.2 Data Acquisition Systems
    3.2.1 Data Acquisition for Structural Monitoring
    3.2.2 Data Acquisition in Bridge Monitoring
3.3 Data Transmission Systems
    3.3.1 Wired Transmission Systems
    3.3.2 Wireless Transmission Systems
    3.3.3 Data Transmission in Bridge Monitoring
3.4 Data Processing Systems
    3.4.1 Data Pre]Processing for SHM
    3.4.2 Data Analysis and Compression
    3.4.3 Data Processing in Bridge Monitoring
3.5 Data Management Systems
    3.5.1 Data Storage and File Management
    3.5.2 Data Management in Bridge Monitoring
3.6 Case Study
3.7 Concluding Remarks
References

4 Structural Damage Identification Techniques

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Damage in Structures
4.3 Non]Destructive Testing Techniques
    4.3.1 Acoustic Emission
    4.3.2 Ultrasound
    4.3.3 Guided (Lamb) Waves
    4.3.4 Thermography
    4.3.5 Electromagnetic Methods
    4.3.6 Capacitive Methods
    4.3.7 Laser Doppler Vibrometer
    4.3.8 Global Positioning System
    4.3.9 Visual Inspection
4.4 Comparison of NDT and SHM
4.5 Signal Processing for Damage Detection
    4.5.1 Fourier Based Transforms
    4.5.2 Wavelet Transforms
    4.5.3 Hilbert–Huang Transform
    4.5.4 Comparison of Various Transforms
4.6 Data] Based Versus Model]Based Techniques
4.7 Development of Vibration]Based Methods
4.8 Concluding Remarks
References

5 Modal Analysis of Civil Engineering Structures

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Basic Equations for Structural Dynamics
    5.2.1 Modal Solution
    5.2.2 Frequency Response Function
5.3 Input]Output Modal Identification
    5.3.1 Equipment and Test Procedure
    5.3.2 Modal Identification Techniques
        5.3.2.1 Frequency]Domain Techniques
        5.3.2.2 Time]Domain Techniques
    5.3.3 Example for Modal Identification – a Steel Space Frame (I)
5.4 Output]Only Modal Identification
    5.4.1 Equipment and Test Procedure
    5.4.2 Operational Modal Identification Techniques
        5.4.2.1 Frequency]Domain Methods
        5.4.2.2 Time]Domain Methods
    5.4.3 Damping Estimation
    5.4.4 Effect of Temperature on Modal Data
    5.4.5 Comparison of Methods
    5.4.6 Example for Modal Identification – a Cable Stayed Bridge
5.5 Correlation Between Test and Calculated Results
    5.5.1 Modal Assurance Criterion
    5.5.2 Orthogonality Checks
    5.5.3 Modal Scale Factor
    5.5.4 Coordinate Modal Assurance Criterion
5.6 Mode Shape Expansion and Model Reduction
    5.6.1 General Expansion and Reduction Methods
    5.6.2 Perturbed Force Approach
    5.6.3 Comparison of Methods
5.7 Case Study
    5.7.1 Operational Modal Analysis
    5.7.2 Mode Shape Expansion
5.8 Concluding Remarks
References

6 Finite Element Model Updating

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Finite Element Modelling
    6.2.1 Stiffness and Mass Matrices
    6.2.2 Finite Element Modelling Error
6.3 Structural Parameters for Model Updating
    6.3.1 Updating Parameters for Framed Structures
       6.3.1.1 Updating Stiffness and Mass at Element Level
       6.3.1.2 Updating Stiffness at Integration Point Level
       6.3.1.3 Updating Material and Sectional Properties
       6.3.1.4 Updating Joints and Boundary Conditions
    6.3.2 Updating Parameters for Continuum Structures
6.4 Sensitivity Based Methods
     6.4.1 Sensitivity Matrix
         6.4.1.1 Sensitivity of Eigenvalue
         6.4.1.2 Sensitivity of Eigenvector
         6.4.1.3 Sensitivity of Input Force
     6.4.2 Direct Parameter Estimation
     6.4.3 Residual Minimisation Methods
     6.4.4 Example for Model Updating – a Cantilever Beam
6.5 Dynamic Perturbation Method
     6.5.1 Governing Equations
     6.5.2 Regularised Solution Procedure
6.6 Use of Dynamic Perturbation Method for Model Updating
     6.6.1 Use of Frequencies Only
     6.6.2 Use of Incomplete Modes
        6.6.2.1 Iterative Solution Method
        6.6.2.2 Simplified Direct Solution Method
     6.6.3 Example for Model Updating – a Plane Frame
     6.6.4 Example for Model Updating – a Steel Space Frame (II)
6.8 Concluding Remarks
References

7 Vibration Based Damage Identification Methods

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Structural Modelling for Damage Identification
7.3 Methods Using Change of Modal Parameters
     7.3.1 Natural Frequencies
     7.3.2 Direct Mode Shape Comparison
     7.3.3 Mode Shape Curvature
     7.3.4 Damping
     7.3.5 Frequency Response Function Curvature
     7.3.6 Modal Strain Energy
     7.3.7 Example for Damage Localisation – a Suspension Bridge (II)
7.4 Methods Using Change of Structural Parameters
     7.4.1 Flexibility Matrix
     7.4.2 Strain Energy Based Damage Index
     7.4.3 Modal Strain]Based Damage Index
     7.4.4 Example for Damage Localisation – a Suspension Bridge (III)
7.5 Pattern Recognition Methods
     7.5.1 Stochastic Pattern Recognition
     7.5.2 Novelty Detection
     7.5.3 Example for Damage Detection – a Suspension Bridge (IV)
7.6 Neural Network Techniques
    7.6.1 Back]Propagation Neural Network
    7.6.2 Input Parameters and Pre]Processing
    7.6.3 Probabilistic Neural Network
    7.6.4 Example for Damage Localisation – a Suspension Bridge (V)
7.7 Concluding Remarks
References

8 Model Based Damage Assessment Methods

8.1 Introduction 195
8.2 Characterisation of Damage in Structures
     8.2.1 Damage in Framed Structures
        8.2.1.1 Damage Characterisation at Element Level
        8.2.1.2 Damage Characterisation at Critical Point Level
     8.2.2 Damage in Continuum Structures
        8.2.2.1 Damage Characterisation at Element Level
        8.2.2.2 Damage Characterisation at Integration Point Level
8.3 Matrix Update Methods
     8.3.1 Residual Force Vector Method
     8.3.2 Minimum Rank Update Method
     8.3.3 Optimal Matrix Updating Method
     8.3.4 Example for Damage Assessment – a Plane Truss
8.4 Sensitivity Based Methods
     8.4.1 Eigen]Parameter Sensitivity Method
     8.4.2 FRF Sensitivity Method
     8.4.3 Example for Damage Assessment – a Grid Structure
8.5 Damage Assessment Using Dynamic Perturbation Method
     8.5.1 Use of Frequencies Only
     8.5.2 Use of Incomplete Modes
     8.5.3 Examples for Damage Assessment – Simple Framed Structures
         8.5.3.1 Damage Assessment of a Grid Structure Using Frequencies Only
         8.5.3.2 Damage Assessment of a Plane Truss Using Incomplete Modes
8.6 Numerical Examples
     8.6.1 Framed Building Structure
     8.6.2 Gravity Dam Structure
8.7 Potential Problems in Vibration]Based Damage Identification
     8.7.1 Finite Element Model and Experimental Data
     8.7.2 Effect of Modelling and Measurement Errors
     8.7.3 Effect of Environmental Factors
        8.7.4 Frequency Range and Damage Detectability
        8.7.5 Damage Diagnosis and Prognosis
8.8 Concluding Remarks
References

9 Monitoring Based Reliability Analysis and Damage Prognosis

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Usage Monitoring
     9.2.1 Lifecycle Monitoring
     9.2.2 Load Monitoring and Evaluation
     9.2.3 Monitoring of Environmental Factors
     9.2.4 Example for Usage Monitoring – a Suspension Bridge (VI)
9.3 Probabilistic Deterioration Modelling
     9.3.1 Sources of Deterioration
     9.3.2 Modelling and Parameter Uncertainty
     9.3.3 Probabilistic Deterioration Models
        9.3.3.1 Failure Rate Function
        9.3.3.2 Markov Process
        9.3.3.3 Gamma Process
     9.3.4 Example for Fatigue Cracking Modelling – a Steel Bridge (I)
9.4 Lifetime Distribution Analysis
     9.4.1 Stochastic Gamma Process
     9.4.2 Weibull Life Distribution Model
     9.4.3 Data Informed Updating
     9.4.4 Example for Lifetime Distribution Analysis – a Concrete Bridge
9.5 Structural Reliability Analysis
     9.5.1 Limit States and Reliability Analysis
     9.5.2 Time]Variant Reliability
     9.5.3 Remaining Useful Life
     9.5.4 Example for Fatigue Reliability Analysis – a Suspension Bridge (VII)
9.6 Optimum Maintenance Strategy
     9.6.1 Lifetime Costs
     9.6.2 Decision Based on Lifetime Deterioration
         9.6.2.1 Failure Rate Function Model
         9.6.2.2 Markov Process Model
         9.6.2.3 Gamma Process Model
         9.6.2.4 Survival Function
     9.6.3 Decision Based on Structural Reliability
     9.6.4 Example for Optimal Maintenance – a Steel Bridge (II)
9.7 Case Study
     9.7.1 Traffic Loads Monitoring
     9.7.2 Cable Force Monitoring
     9.7.3 Stiffening Deck System Stress Monitoring
9.8 Concluding Remarks
References

10 Applications of SHM Strategies to Large Civil Structures

10.1 Introduction
10.2 SHM System and Damage Identification of a Cable]Stayed Bridge
     10.2.1 Sensors and Sensing Network
     10.2.2 Data Management System
     10.2.3 Operational Modal Analysis and Mode Identifiability
     10.2.4 Finite Element Modelling
     10.2.5 Damage Localisation Using Mode Shape Curvature Index
     10.2.6 Damage Detection Using Neural Network
10.3 In Construction Monitoring of a High]Rise Building
     10.3.1 Long]Term SHM System
     10.3.2 Monitoring During Shoring Dismantlement
     10.3.3 Wireless Sensing Network for Vibration Monitoring
     10.3.4 Ambient Vibration Tests and Results
10.4 Monitoring of Tunnel Construction Using FBG Sensors
     10.4.1 Temperature Monitoring of Tunnel Cross Passage Construction
     10.4.2 Settlement Monitoring of Undercrossing Tunnel Construction
 10.5 Safety Monitoring of Rail Using Acoustic Emission
     10.5.1 Rail Track Damage Detection System
     10.5.2 On Site Monitoring Data
 10.6 Structural Integrity Monitoring of Water Mains
     10.6.1 FBG Sensory System
     10.6.2 Implementation of Monitoring System
     10.6.3 Measurements Under Different Operational Conditions
10.7 Concluding Remarks
References

 

 

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