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Railway Management and Engineering



In a rapidly changing world, with increasing competition in all sectors of transportation, railways are in a period of restructuring their management and technology. New methods of organization are introduced, commercial and tariff policies change radically, a more entrepreneurial spirit is required. At the same time, new high-speed tracks are being constructed and old tracks are renewed, high-comfort rolling stock vehicles are being introduced, logistics and combined transport are being developed. Awareness of environmental issues and the search for greater safety give a new role to the railways within the transportation system. Meanwhile, methods of analysis have significantly evolved, principally due to computer applications and new ways of thinking and approaching old problems.


  • ISBN: 978-1-4094-6463-1
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2014

Disponibilidad: 15 a 30 Días

Contenido Railway Management and Engineering

In a rapidly changing world, with increasing competition in all sectors of transportation, railways are in a period of restructuring their management and technology. New methods of organization are introduced, commercial and tariff policies change radically, a more entrepreneurial spirit is required. At the same time, new high-speed tracks are being constructed and old tracks are renewed, high-comfort rolling stock vehicles are being introduced, logistics and combined transport are being developed. Awareness of environmental issues and the search for greater safety give a new role to the railways within the transportation system. Meanwhile, methods of analysis have significantly evolved, principally due to computer applications and new ways of thinking and approaching old problems.

Thus, it becomes necessary to come up with a new scientific approach to tackle management and engineering aspects of railways, to understand in-depth the origins and inter-relationships of the various situations and phenomena and to suggest the appropriate methods and solutions to solve the various emerging problems. This book aims to cover the need for a new scientific approach for railways. It is intended to be of use to railway managers, economists and engineers, consulting economists and engineers, students of schools of engineering, transportation, economics, and management. The book is divided into three parts, which deal succes-sively with management, track, and rolling stock, environment and safety.

Each chapter of the book contains the necessary theoretical analysis of the phenomena studied, the recommended solutions, applications, charts and design of the specific railway component. In this way, both the requirement for a theoretical analysis is met, and the need of the railway manager and engineer for tables, nomographs, regulations, etc. is satisfied. Railways in Europe have separated activities of infrastructure from those of operation. In other parts of the world, however, railways remain unified. The book addresses both situations (separated and unified railways). Railways present great differences in their technologies. Something may be valid for one such technology, but not for another. To overcome this problem, regulations of the International Union of Railways (UIC) as well as European Standardization (CEN) and European Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSIs) have been used to the greatest extent possible. Whenever a specific technology or method is presented, the limits of its application are clearly emphasized.

Contents:  Foreword, Prof. A. López Pita; Preface; Railways and transport; High speeds and magnetic levitation; Policy and legislation; Forecast of rail demand; Costs and pricing; Planning and management of railways; The track system; Mechanical behavior of track; Subgrade - geotechnical and hydrogeological analysis; The rail; Sleepers - fastenings; Ballast; Transverse effects - derailment; Track layout; Switches and crossings; Laying and maintenance of track; Slab track; Train dynamics; Rolling stock; Diesel and electric traction; Signaling - safety - interoperability; Environmental effects of railways; List of references; Abbreviations; Index.

About the Author:  V.A. Profillidis is a Transport Consultant and Professor at Democritus Thrace University, Xanthi, Greece. A consultant on many railway projects, with thirty years of research, teaching and professional experience in Railway Management and Engineering, he has published 140 papers in scientific journals and conference proceedings in this field. Previously he was visiting professor at the Department of Management of the University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece and an advisor to the Greek Ministry of Transport, the Greek Railways and the Greek Ministry of Public Works. He has also been a research associate in the Research Department of the International Union of Railways (UIC) and at French Railways (SNCF). He gained the diplomas of Civil Engineering and of the Faculty of Law and Economics at the University of Thessaloniki, D.E.A. and Ph.D. from Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées of Paris.

Reviews:  ‘Currently, rail engineers are under enormous pressures simultaneously to improve quality of service, increase safety and yet simultaneously cut costs. They need to understand not just engineering, but also management, economics, government policy and legislation. This text can be strongly recommended for the excellent coverage it provides on all these issues, drawing on worldwide experience.’
Chris Nash, University of Leeds, UK

‘If you are interested in learning about the role of the railway in the transport system as well as the technical and financial aspects of its business, in Professor Profillidis’ book you will find accurate, well-supported answers to your questions, including a clear explanation of the contribution that this mode of transport could make to the conservation of the environment.’
Andres López Pita, Catalonia Polytechnic University, Spain

Review of Third Edition:
‘Now in its third edition, this amazingly comprehensive book far surpasses the wildest dreams of the most devoted trainspotter and railway buff, while seriously offering a new scientific approach to the management and engineering aspects of railways…the author is an internationally recognized authority on track mechanics and transport economics, a fact clearly reflected in the wide range of world examples and references which make the book such a valuable source of reference, guidance, planning and implementation…the text is considerably enhanced throughout by an outstanding wealth of illustrations…the subject range and depth is amazing…the language is lively and the presentation and layout make reading easy for student assimilation and fast reference.’
The RoSPA Occupational Safety & Health Journal

Foreword by Prof. A. López Pita

1. Railways and Transport

1.1. Evolution of railways
1.1.1. Historical outline
1.1.2. The golden age of railways and recent technical innovations
1.1.3. Railways and other competing transportation means
1.1.4. Railways in the era of monopoly and competition
1.2. Characteristics of rail transport
1.2.1. Ability to transport high volumes
1.2.2. Energy consumption
1.2.3. Environmental impact and safety
1.3. Economic growth and railways
1.4. Increase of mobility and railways
1.5. Rail passenger traffic
1.5.1. Volumes of rail passenger traffic
1.5.2. Share of railways in the passenger market
1.5.3. Growth rates of rail passenger traffic
1.5.4. Distances with a comparative advantage for rail passenger traffic
1.6. Rail freight traffic
1.6.1. Volumes of rail freight traffic
1.6.2. Share of railways in the freight market
1.6.3. Growth rates of rail freight traffic
1.7. Railway traffic, length of lines, staff and productivity
1.8. Priority to passenger or freight traffic
1.9. Transportation services with good prospects for the railways
1.9.1. Comparative advantages of railways and high-speed trains
1.9.2. Urban rail services
1.9.3. Combined transport
1.9.4. Bulk loads
1.9.5. Rail freight transport and logistics
1.10. Rail and air transport: Competition or complementarity
1.10.1. Areas of competition and of complementarity
1.10.2. Rail links with airports 21
1.10.3. Rail connections of airports with other areas
1.11. International railway institutions
1.12. Rolling stock industries
1.13. Railway interoperability
1.14. Applications of GPS in railways

2. High Speeds and Magnetic Levitation

2.1. The evolution of high speeds on rails
2.1.1. Definition of high-speed trains and evolution of speed
2.1.2. Panorama of high-speed lines around the world
2.1.3. High speeds for only passenger or mixed traffic
2.2. High-speed trains and their impact on the rail market
2.2.1. High speeds and population concentrations
2.2.2. Impact of high speeds on the reduction of rail travel times
2.2.3. High speeds and new rail traffic
2.3. Technical features of high-speed railway lines
2.3.1. Technical characteristics of high-speed lines
2.3.2. Track characteristics for high speeds
2.3.3. Rolling stock for high speeds
2.3.4. Power supply at high speeds
2.4. The Channel Tunnel and high speeds between London and Paris
2.4.1. Technical description
2.4.2. Travel times
2.4.3. Method of financing and forecasts of demand
2.4.4. Operation, safety and maintenance
2.5. Tilting trains
2.6. Aerotrain
2.7. Magnetic levitation
2.7.1. Technical description
2.7.2. Comparison of magnetic levitation with conventional railways
2.7.3. Applications of magnetic levitation

3. Policy and Legislation

3.1. The competitive international environment and the evolution of the organization of railways
3.2. The dual nature of railways: business and technology
3.2.1. Weaknesses inherited to railways
3.2.2. Comparative advantages of railways
3.2.3. Strategy and restructuring measures
3.2.4. Railways and transport requirements
3.3. Globalization and liberalization of the rail market
3.4. Separation of infrastructure from operation and the new challenges for railways
3.4.1. Separation as an incentive for competition
3.4.2. Competition and new challenges for railways
3.4.3. Various forms of separation
3.5. A definition of railway infrastructure
3.6. European Union rail legislation
3.7. Some representative models of separation of infrastructure from operation in European railways
3.7.1. The Integrated model
3.7.2. The Semi-integrated model with apparent organic separation
3.7.3. The Holding model
3.7.4. The Separated model
3.7.5. The Separated model along with further separation in infrastructure
3.7.6. The Separated model along with privatization
3.7.7. Assessment of the various models
3.8. Rail legislation in the USA and Canada
3.9. Rail legislation in Japan
3.10. Rail legislation in China and India
3.11. Rail legislation in Australia and New Zealand

4. Forecast of Rail Demand

4.1. Purposes, needs and methods for the forecast of rail demand
4.2. Parameters affecting the various categories of rail demand
4.2.1. Parameters affecting rail demand globally (aggregate approach)
4.2.2. Effects on demand of the various parameters of railtransport Passenger rail demand Freight rail demand
4.3. Qualitative methods
4.3.1. Market surveys
4.3.2. Scenario writing method
4.3.3. Delphi method
4.4. Statistical projections
4.4.1. Theoretical background and conditions of applicability
4.4.2. Example of a statistical projection
4.5. Econometric models
4.5.1. Definition and domains of application
4.5.2. Statistical tests for the validity of an econometric model
4.5.3. Examples of some econometric models
4.5.4. Exogenous and endogenous variables in rail econometric models
4.6. Gravity models
4.7. Fuzzy models
4.7.1. Description of the fuzzy method
4.7.2. Example of a fuzzy model
4.8. Time-series models
4.8.1. Definition of time-series models – Approach of Box-Jenkins
4.8.2. The Least median of squares (LMS) method for the
forecast of rail demand
4.9. Statistical evaluation of the forecasting ability of a model
4.10. A comparative analysis of performances of each method
4.11. Modelling of rail freight demand

5. Costs and Pricing

5.1. Definition of railway costs
5.1.1. Construction and operation costs
5.1.2. Fixed and variable costs
5.1.3. Marginal cost
5.1.4. External costs and marginal social cost
5.1.5. Generalized cost
5.2. Construction cost of a new railway line
5.2.1. Factors affecting rail construction cost
5.2.2. Construction costs for new high-speed lines
5.2.3. Allocation of costs to the various rail components
5.2.4. Construction costs of civil engineering works
5.2.5. Construction costs of track
5.2.6. Construction costs of electric traction
5.2.7. Construction costs of signaling
5.3. Maintenance and operation costs of infrastructure
5.3.1. Maintenance cost of infrastructure
5.3.2. Operation cost of infrastructure
5.4. Cost of purchase of rolling stock
5.4.1. Cost of high-speed rolling stock
5.4.2. Cost of ordinary passenger vehicles
5.4.3. Cost of freight vehicles
5.4.4. Cost of diesel locomotives
5.4.5. Cost of electric locomotives
5.5. Economic life of the various components of the railway system
5.6. Cost of operation of a railway company
5.6.1. Passenger transport
5.6.2. Freight transport
5.6.3. Combined transport
5.7. Quantification of external effects in monetary values
5.8. Pricing of infrastructure
5.8.1. Principles of infrastructure pricing
5.8.2. Objectives of infrastructure pricing
5.8.3. Financial consequences of infrastructure pricing
5.8.4. A commercial approach of infrastructure pricing
5.8.5. Theoretical and practical infrastructure pricing
5.8.6. Structure of infrastructure pricing
5.9. Infrastructure pricing models in some countries
5.9.1. Infrastructure pricing according to European Union legislation
5.9.2. France
5.9.3. Germany
5.9.4. United Kingdom
5.9.5. Sweden and Finland
5.9.6. Italy
5.9.7. Switzerland
5.9.8. Other countries
5.9.9. A comparison of rail infrastructure charges
5.10. Pricing of operation
5.10.1. Targets of pricing of operation
5.10.2. The traditional method of pricing
5.10.3. Effects of elasticities
5.10.4. Pricing and competition
5.11. Pricing of passenger traffic
5.11.1. The existence (or not) of public service obligations
5.11.2. The strategic dilemma: profit or increase of traffic
5.11.3. Pricing for rail operators without public service obligations
5.11.4. Yield management techniques
5.11.5. Complementary commercial measures to increase revenues
5.12. Pricing of freight traffic

6. Planning and Management of Railways

6.1. Railways and the social and economic environment
6.1.1. A systems approach for the railways
6.1.2. Railways and the social and economic environment The social and economic environment Strategic and tactical level of decisions Separation in business units Changes and requirements of the environmentof railways
6.1.3. Quality control
6.2. Competition and impact on railway management
6.3. Feasibility studies and methods of financing
6.3.1. Need for evaluation of any rail project
6.3.2. Benefits and costs from new railway infrastructure
6.3.3. Evaluation methods for rail projects
6.3.4. Methods of financing a new rail project
6.3.5. Public-Private Partnerships
6.4. Planning the railway activity
6.4.1. Need and purposes of planning
6.4.2. Master Plans and Business Plans
6.4.3. A brief description of a Business Plan of a railway undertaking
6.5. Project management for railways
6.5.1. Definition of project management
6.5.2. Scope, benefits and costs of project management
6.5.3. Some rail projects that could require project management
6.5.4. A description of tasks of project management for railways
6.6. Management of infrastructure
6.6.1. Tasks and objectives for rail infrastructure
6.6.2. A new management approach
6.6.3. The issue of outsourcing
6.6.4. The need for an homogeneous rail product at the worldlevel
6.7. Management and policy for rail passenger transport
6.7.1. Tasks and objectives for rail passenger transport
6.7.2. A segmentation of traffic
6.7.3. A new strategy combining competition, cooperation andalliances
6.7.4. Traditional weaknesses and offer of a new global product of railways
6.7.5. Application of informatics technologies (internet, SMS)
6.7.6. Marketing – Customer satisfaction surveys – Creation of a new culture
6.8. Management and policy for rail freight transport
6.8.1. Tasks and objectives of rail freight transport
6.8.2. A merciless competition
6.8.3. Integration of rail freight in the logistics chain
6.9. Human resources and their revalorization
6.9.1. The need for a more entrepreneurial approach
6.9.2. Allocation of human resources
6.9.3. The art of motivating people to work
6.9.4. Increase of productivity
6.9.5. Restructuring and revalorization of human resources
6.10. Privatization of railways
6.10.1. Prerequisites and targets of privatization
6.10.2. Privatization and competition
6.10.3. The problem of debt
6.10.4. The need for a strong Regulator
6.10.5. Privatization of infrastructure
6.10.6. Privatization of operation
6.10.7. Some cases of privatization of railways all over the world
6.10.8. Effects and degree of privatization
6.11. Justification and calculation of public service obligations

7. The Track System

7.1. The traditional division of railway topics into track, traction and operation
7.2. The track system and its components
7.3. Track on ballast or on concrete slab
7.4. Track gauge
7.5. Axle load and traffic load
7.5.1. Axle load
7.5.2. Traffic load
7.6. Sleeper spacing
7.7. The wheel-rail contact
7.8. Transverse wheel oscillations along the rail
7.9. Rail inclination on sleeper
7.10. Loading gauge
7.10.1. Static and dynamic loading gauge
7.10.2. European, British and American loading gauge
7.10.3. Loading gauge for high-speed tracks
7.10.4. Loading gauge for metro systems
7.10.5. Loading gauge for metric gauge tracks
7.11. Forces generated by the movement of a rail vehicle – Static and dynamic analysis
7.11.1. Forces generated
7.11.2. Static and dynamic analysis-Track defects and additional dynamic loads
7.12. Influence of forces on passenger comfort

8. Mechanical Behavior of Track

8.1. A variety of methods adjusted to the nature of the problem under study
8.2. Track coefficients and Bousinesq’s analysis
8.2.1. Definitions – Symbols
8.2.2. Track coefficients
8.2.3. Track coefficients and Bousinesq’s analysis
8.3. Approximate uni-directional elastic analysis of vertical effects
8.3.1. Assumptions and formulas
8.3.2. Results of the method
8.4. Accurate analysis of the mechanical behavior of track–Finite element method and elastoplastic analysis
8.4.1. A short description of applications of the finite element
method in track problems
8.4.2. Construction of the mesh of the model
8.4.3. Limit conditions
8.4.4. Stress-strain relationship Case of ballast and subgrade Case of rail and sleeper
8.4.5. Numerical calculations
8.4.6. Determination of the mechanical characteristics of the various materials
8.4.7. Stress and strain in the track-subgrade system
8.4.8. Distribution of wheel load along successive sleepers
8.4.9. Elastic line of sleeper
8.5. Dynamic analysis of the track-subgrade system
8.6. Track defects and additional dynamic loads
8.7. Dynamic impact factor coefficient
8.8. Design of the track-subgrade system
8.9. Vibrations and noise from rail traffic
8.9.1. Origins of rail vibrations
8.9.2. Relation of rail noise level to speed
8.9.3. Damping of rail noise in relation to distance
8.9.4. Noise level in relation to infrastructure type
8.9.5. Noise levels in high speeds
8.9.6. Noise level standards
8.10. Analysis of the accurate mechanical behavior of rail
8.11. Application of unilateral contact theories in railway problems
8.11.1. Transmission of forces through contact surfaces
8.11.2. Unilateral contact theories
8.11.3. Equations of the unilateral contact problem
8.11.4. Numerical calculations

9. Subgrade – Geotechnical and Hydrogeological Analysis

9.1. The importance of the railway subgrade on track quality and its functions
9.2. Analytical geotechnical study
9.2.1. Targets of a geotechnical study and soil investigation
9.2.2. Preliminary studies
9.2.3. Techniques and methods of exploration used in a geotechnical study
9.2.4. Planning the exploration program
9.2.5. Geotechnical report and longitudinal section
9.3. Geotechnical classifications of soils
9.4. Hydrogeological conditions
9.5. Classification of the railway subgrade
9.6. Mechanical characteristics of the subgrade
9.7. The formation layer
9.7.1. Laying of formation layer in new tracks
9.7.2. Improvement of formation layer in existing tracks
9.8. Impact of traffic load on the subgrade
9.9. Impact of maintenance conditions on the subgrade
9.9.1. The maintenance coefficient
9.9.2. Impact of the maintenance coefficient on the behavior
of track bed and the subgrade
9.9.3. Impact of the maintenance coefficient on subgrade stresses
9.10. Fatigue behavior of the subgrade
9.11. Frost protection of railway subgrades
9.11.1. Frost index
9.11.2. Frost foundation thickness
9.11.3. Frost protection methods on existing tracks
9.12. Track subgrade in cuts and on embankments – Values of slopes
9.12.1. Subgrade in cut sections
9.12.2. Subgrade on embankment sections
9.13. The reinforced soil technique
9.14. Hydraulic analysis and calculation of flows
9.14.1. Level of ground water
9.14.2. Semi-empirical formulas for the calculation of run-off flows
9.14.3. The rational method for the calculation of run-off flows
9.15. Geotextiles in railway subgrades
9.15.1. Characteristics, types and properties of geotextiles
9.15.2. Use and applications of geotextiles in the railway subgrade
9.16. Vegetation on the subgrade and the ballast
9.16.1. Vegetation on the track and herbicides
9.16.2. Criteria and dosage for application of herbicides
9.17. Earthquakes and the behavior of track and the subgrade

10. The Rail

10.1. Rail profiles
10.2. Manufacturing of rail steel
10.3. Mechanical strength and chemical composition of rail steel
10.3.1. Mechanical strength
10.3.2. Chemical composition Carbon Manganese Chromium and Silicon Chromium – Manganese Equivalent carbon percentage
10.3.3. Rail grades Rail grades according to UIC Rail grades according to European standard Choice of rail grade
10.4. Choice of rail profile
10.4.1. Standard gauge tracks
10.4.2. Metric gauge tracks
10.4.3. Broad gauge tracks
10.4.4. Geometrical characteristics of various rail profiles
10.5. Transport of rails
10.6. Analysis of stresses in the rail
10.6.1. Stresses at wheel-rail contact
10.6.2. Bending stresses of the rail on the ballast
10.6.3. Bending stresses of the rail head on the rail web
10.6.4. Stresses caused by temperature changes
10.6.5. Plastic stresses
10.7. Analysis of the mechanical behavior of rail by the finite element and the photoelasticity methods
10.8. Rail fatigue
10.8.1. Fatigue curve and rail lifetime determination
10.8.2. Rail fatigue criterion
10.8.3. Evolution of an internal discontinuity
10.9. Rail defects
10.9.1. Definition of rail defects
10.9.2. Codification of rail defects
10.9.3. Defects in rail ends Longitudinal vertical cracking
10.9.4. Defects away from rail ends Tache ovale Horizontal cracking Rolling (running) surface disintegration Short-pitch corrugations Long-pitch corrugations Lateral wear Shelling of the running surface Gauge-corner shelling
10.9.5. Defects caused by rail damage Bruising Faulty machining
10.9.6. Welding and resurfacing defects Electric flash-butt welding Thermit welding and electric arc welding defects
10.10. Permissible rail wear
10.10.1. Vertical wear
10.10.2. Lateral wear
10.11. Optimum lifetime of rail
10.12. Fishplates
10.13. The continuous welded rail
10.13.1. The continuous welding technique
10.13.2. Mechanical behavior of continuous welded rail Assumptions Simplified mechanical analysis of continuous welded rail Distribution of forces along a continuous welded rail Length changes in the expansion zone Rail welding Flash-butt welding Thermit welding Electric arc welding Distressing of a continuous welded rail
10.13.3. Expansion devices
10.13.4. Advantages of the continuous welded rail

11. Sleepers – Fastenings

11.1. The various types of sleepers and their functions
11.2. Steel sleepers
11.2.1. Form and properties
11.2.3. Advantages and disadvantages
11.2.4. Lifetime
11.3. Timber sleepers
11.3.1. Form, properties and timber types
11.3.2. Geometrical characteristics
11.3.3. Advantages and disadvantages
11.3.4. Lifetime
11.3.5. Deformability of timber sleepers
11.4. Concrete sleepers
11.4.1. Inherent weaknesses of concrete sleepers
11.4.2. The two types of concrete sleepers
11.5. The twin-block reinforced-concrete sleeper
11.5.1. Geometrical characteristics and mechanical strength
11.5.2. Advantages and disadvantages
11.5.3. Lifetime
11.5.4. Deformability of twin-block sleepers
11.6. The monoblock prestressed-concrete sleeper
11.6.1. Geometrical characteristics and mechanical strength
11.6.2. Advantages and disadvantages
11.6.3. Lifetime
11.6.4. Deformability of monoblock sleepers
11.6.5. Monoblock sleepers in high-speed tracks
11.7. Manufacturing, quality control and testing of concrete sleepers
11.8. Stresses developing beneath the sleeper
11.9. Fastenings
11.9.1. Functional characteristics
11.9.2. Types of fastenings Rigid fastenings Elastic fastenings Types of elastic fastenings Operating principles of elastic fastenings
11.9.3. Forces and stresses in rigid and in elastic fastenings
11.9.4. Design criteria, anchorage and insulation of a fastening
11.9.5. Rail creep and anti-creep anchors
11.10. Resilient pads
11.10.1. Pads with or without a baseplate
11.10.2. Functions and properties of pads
11.10.3. Dimensions, materials and design
11.10.4. Force-elongation curves
11.11. Requirements of the European specifications for the sleeper-fastening system
11.12. Numerical application for the design of the various track components

12. Ballast

12.1. Functions of ballast and subballast
12.1.1. Functions of ballast
12.1.2. Functions of subballast
12.2. Geometrical characteristics of ballast
12.2.1. Granulometric composition
12.2.2. Fine particles
12.2.3. Fines
12.2.4. Particle shape Flakiness index Shape index Particle length
12.3. Mechanical behavior of ballast and subballast
12.3.1. Elastoplastic behavior
12.3.2. Fatigue behavior Ballast Subballast
12.3.3. Modulus of elasticity Ballast Subballast
12.4. Ballast hardness
12.4.1. The Deval test
12.4.2. The Los Angeles test
12.4.3. The Microdeval test
12.4.4. Required strength and hardness of ballast
12.5. Determination of the appropriate thickness of ballast
12.5.1. Determination of the appropriate thickness of track bed
12.5.2. Required thickness of track bed (ballast + subballast) to avoid frost penetration
12.5.3. Thickness of ballast and subballast
12.5.4. Calculation of thickness of ballast according to the British regulations
12.5.5. Numerical application
12.5.6. Appropriate thickness of ballast for metric gauge tracks
12.6. Track cross-sections
12.7. Lifetime and re-use of ballast

13. Transverse Effects – Derailment

13.1. Transverse effects
13.2. Transverse track forces
13.2.1. Transverse static force
13.2.2. Transverse dynamic force
13.3. Transverse track resistance
13.4. Influence of ballast characteristics on transverse track resistance
13.4.1. Influence of the geometrical characteristics of the ballast cross-section
13.4.2. Influence of the granulometric composition of ballast
13.4.3. Influence of the degree of ballast compacting
13.5. Influence of sleeper type on transverse track resistance
13.6. Additional measures and special equipment used to increase transverse track resistance
13.7. Derailment
13.7.1. Derailment caused by track shifting
13.7.2. Derailment caused by wheel climbing on the rail
13.7.3. Derailment caused by the overturning of the vehicle
13.7.4. Derailment safety factor – Numerical application
13.8. Effects of transverse winds

14. Track Layout

14.1. Rail vehicle running on a curve
14.1.1. Effects during movement of a rail vehicle on a curve
14.1.2. Transition curve – Cubic parabola or clothoid
14.2. Theoretical and actual values of cant – Permissible values of transverse acceleration
14.2.1. Theoretical value of cant for complete compensation of centrifugal forces
14.2.2. Applied value of cant, cant deficiency and cant excess
14.2.3. Cant deficiency and tilting trains
14.2.4. Permissible values of transverse acceleration
14.2.5. Variation in time of cant deficiency
14.3. Limit values of cant, cant deficiency, cant excess and noncompensated transverse acceleration
14.3.1. Limit values according to UIC
14.3.2. Limit values according to European specifications
14.3.3. Geometrical characteristics of layout in some high-speed tracks
14.4. Calculation of the transition curve
14.5. Calculation of the circular arc
14.6. Case of consecutive same sense and antisense circular arcs
14.8. Combining maximum and minimum speeds
14.9. Relationship of train speed with radius of curvature
14.10. Transition curves in the case of variation of the distance between the axes of two tracks
14.11. Longitudinal gradients and vertical transition curves
14.11.1.Longitudinal gradients
14.11.2. Vertical transition curves
14.12. Some considerations for metric gauge tracks
14.13. Layout design with the use of tables and computer methods
14.14. Construction of a new railway line
14.14.1. Feasibility study
14.14.2. Preliminary design
14.14.3. Outline design
14.14.4. Final design
14.14.5. Staking of the track layout
14.15. Environmental aspects of track layout

15. Switches and Crossings

15.1. Functions of switches and crossings
15.2. Components of a turnout
15.3. Various forms of turnouts
15.4. Running speed on turnouts
15.5. Geometrical characteristics of turnouts
15.6. Derailment criterion for switches and crossings
15.7. Turnouts on a curved main track
15.8. Turnouts run with increased speeds
15.9. Sleeper and track layout in turnouts and crossings
15.10. Manual and automatic operation of turnouts
15.11. Design principles for switches and crossings

16. Laying and Maintenance of Track

16.1. Laying of track
16.1.1. Mechanical equipment
16.1.2. Sequence of construction of the various track works
16.2. Track maintenance and parameters influencing it
16.3. Definitions and parameters associated with track defects
16.4. Track defects
16.4.1. Longitudinal defect
16.4.2. Transverse defect
16.4.3. Horizontal defect
16.4.4. Track gauge
16.4.5. Track twist
16.5. Recording methods of track defects
16.6. Limit values of track defects
16.6.1. Limit values for high-, rapid- and medium-speed tracks
16.6.2. Limit values for medium- and low-speed tracks
16.6.3. Acceptance values
16.6.4. Emergency values
16.6.5. Limit values according to European specifications
16.7. Progress of track defects
16.7.1. Longitudinal defect Mean settlement of track Standard deviation of longitudinal defects Interval between maintenance sessions
16.7.2. Transverse defect
16.7.3. Horizontal defect
16.7.4. Gauge deviations
16.7.5. Track twist
16.8. Mechanical equipment for maintenance works
16.9. Scheduling of maintenance operations
16.10. Technical considerations for track maintenance works
16.11. Optimization of maintenance expenses
16.12. Track maintenance, vegetation and weed control

17. Slab Track

17.1. The dilemma between ballasted and non-ballasted track
17.1.1. Advantages and weaknesses of ballasted track
17.1.2. The non-ballasted track
17.1.3. First trials, tests and evolution of slab track techniques
17.2. Mechanical behavior of slab track
17.2.1. Simulation of slab track
17.2.2. Stresses and settlements in the case of slab track
17.3. A variety of forms of non-ballasted track
17.4. Slab track with sleepers
17.4.1. The Rheda technique
17.4.2. The Züblin technique
17.4.3. The Stedef technique
17.5. Slab track without sleepers
17.6. Non-ballasted track on an asphalt layer
17.8. Costs of slab track

18. Train Dynamics

18.1. Train traction
18.2. Resistances acting during train motion
18.3. Running resistance RL
18.3.1. General equation for the running resistance
18.3.2. Empirical formulas of some railways for the running resistance Formulas of the French railways Diesel or electric locomotives Hauled rolling stock Electric passenger vehicles Formula of the American railways Formulas of the German railways Formulas for broad and metric gauge railways
18.3.3. Resistances developed when running in a tunnel Pressure problems Increased aerodynamic resistances in tunnels Crossing of trains Tunnel cross-section requirements at high speeds
18.3.4. Comparative running resistance between railways and road vehicles
18.4. Resistance Rc due to track curves
18.5. Resistance Rg caused by gravity
18.6. Inertial (acceleration) resistance Rin
18.7. Starting force and traction force of a train
18.8. Adhesion forces
18.9. Required train power
18.10. Values of train acceleration and deceleration
18.11. Train braking
18.11.1. Braking systems
18.11.2. Braking distance
18.11.3. European specifications concerning braking

19. Rolling Stock

19.1. Components of rail vehicle
19.2. Wheels
19.2.1. Geometrical characteristics and materials
19.2.2. Wheel defects and reprofiling
19.2.3. Life cycle of a wheel
19.3. Axles
19.4. Bogies
19.4.1. Definition and functions of a bogie
19.4.2. Forms of bogies
19.4.3. Components of a bogie
19.4.4. Self-steering bogie
19.5. Springs
19.6. Couplings and buffers
19.7. Design of rolling stock
19.8. Localization of the position of a rail vehicle with the use of GPS
19.9. Tilting trains 411
19.9.1. Needs which gave rise to the tilting technology
19.9.2. Tilting technology
19.9.3. Technical and operational characteristics of tilting trains
19.9.4. Reductions in travel times by tilting trains
19.9.5. Cost of tilting trains

20. Diesel and Electric Traction

20.1. The various traction systems
20.2. Steam traction
20.2.1. Operating principle of the steam engine
20.2.2. Main parts of a steam locomotive
20.2.3. Disadvantages and abandonment of the steam locomotive
20.3. From steam traction to diesel traction and electric traction
20.3.1. From steam traction to diesel traction
20.3.2. From steam traction to electric traction
20.3.3. Gas turbine locomotives
20.4. Diesel traction
20.4.1. Operating principle of the diesel engine
20.4.2. Transmission systems
20.4.3. Requirements of diesel locomotives
20.4.4. Advantages and disadvantages of diesel traction
20.5. Electric traction and its subsystems
20.5.1. Power supply subsystem
20.5.2. Traction subsystem
20.5.3. Requirements and priorities
20.6. Electric traction systems
20.6.1. Direct current traction
20.6.2. Alternating current traction Alternating current traction at 15,000 V, 16 Hz 423 Alternating current traction at 25,000 V, 50 Hz 423
20.6.3. Advantages and disadvantages of electric traction compared to diesel traction
20.7. Feasibility analysis before electrification
20.7.1. Feasibility analysis parameters and procedure
20.7.2. Criterion for selection of the lines to be electrified
20.8. Overhead contact system
20.8.1. Parts and components of the overhead contact system
20.8.2. Calculation of the characteristics of the contact wire with the use of physical models
20.8.3. Calculation of the contact wire with the use of the finite element method
20.8.4. Suspension of overhead contact systems
20.8.5. The pantograph
20.8.6. Power transmission by conductor rail
20.8.7. Electrical and power characteristics of some high-speed tracks
20.9. Overhead line supporting poles
20.9.1. Pole material
20.9.2. Pole spacing
20.9.3. Pole foundation
20.10. Substations
20.10.1. Substations feeding direct current systems
20.10.2. Substations feeding alternating current systems
20.10.3. From thyristors to ‘gate turn off’ technology
20.10.4. Operating control center
20.10.5. Interference of electric traction with telecommunication and signaling systems
20.11. Synchronous and asynchronous motors
20.12. Electric locomotives maintenance – Depot

21. Signaling – Safety – Interoperability

21.1. Functions of signaling
21.1.1. Evolution of signaling
21.1.2. Braking distance and signaling requirements
21.1.3. Traffic safety and regularity
21.1.4. The regulatory framework
21.1.5. Basic signaling functions
21.2. Semaphore signaling 442
21.2.1. Visual and audible signals
21.2.2. Colors used in signals
21.2.3. Types of signals
21.3. Operating principles of light signaling – The track circuit
21.3.1. Definition of light signaling
21.3.2. The track circuit Definition Operating principle of the track circuit The block section Types of track circuits Track circuit relay
21.4. Equipment and parts of a light signaling system
21.4.1. Light signals
21.4.2. Switch control devices
21.4.3. Train integrity detectors
21.4.4. Approach locking detectors
21.4.5. Local operating and display board
21.4.6. Remote monitoring and control Operating principles Equipment Remote monitoring – Control of traffic safety
21.4.7. Power supply equipment
21.5. Train running procedure in a light signaling system
21.5.1. Route interlock
21.5.2. Single track interlock
21.5.3. Approach interlock
21.5.4. Interlocking of opposite schedules
21.5.5. Free way interlocking
21.5.6. Light signal interlocking
21.5.7. Compatible and incompatible schedules
21.6. Speed control
21.6.1. The various speed control systems Automatic control and driver functions Intermittent speed control Continuous speed control Speed control and interoperability
21.6.2. Technical characteristics of train speed control systems 452 Electromechanical control Track-locomotive continuous communication system
21.7. Train scheduling
21.8. Calculation of the capacity of a track
21.9. Interoperability
21.9.1. Definition
21.9.2. Interoperability of track gauges
21.9.3. Interoperability of power systems
21.9.4. The European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS)
21.10. Safety measures at level crossings
21.11. Managing railway safety

22. Environmental Effects of Railways

22.1. Climate change, the transport sector and sustainable development
22.1.1. Climate change
22.1.2. Sustainable development
22.1.3. Transport and the environment
22.2. Air pollution and railways
22.2.1. Air pollutants from railways and other transport modes
22.2.2. The greenhouse effect and CO2 emissions from railways and other transport modes
22.2.3. CO2 emissions by the various types of trains
22.2.4. Carbon tax, internalization of external costs and railways
22.3. Railway noise
22.3.1. Sources and damping of railway noise
22.3.2. Noise indicators and maximum permitted level of rail noise
22.3.3. Measures for reduction of rail noise and related costs
22.4. Energy consumption and railways
22.4.1. Energy consumption and the transport sector
22.4.2. Energy consumption within the transport sector
22.4.3. Energy consumption for diesel and electric traction
22.4.4. Specific energy consumption of railways and other transport modes
22.5. Energy consumed in railways for comfort functions
22.6. Accidents, safety and railways
22.6.1. Definition of railway accidents
22.6.2. Types of railway accidents
22.6.3. Causes of railway accidents
22.6.4. Measures to increase railway safety
22.6.5. Evolution in the number of railway accidents
22.6.6. Accidents when transporting hazardous materials
22.6.7. Railway accidents and safety certification
22.7. Land occupancy, landscape
22.8. Congestion

List of References




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