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Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations



Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations introduces the concept of limit state calculations, before focusing on shallow and deep foundations.


  • ISBN: 9781032016870
  • Páginas: 199
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2021

Disponibilidad: 24 horas

Contenido Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations

Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations introduces the concept of limit state calculations, before focusing on shallow and deep foundations. The limit state combinations of actions are examined, and practical calculation models of the bearing capacity and of the settlement are presented, particularly from the results of Ménard pressuremeter tests and cone penetration tests. Attention is also given to the use of numerical methods, which has been developed over the past twenty years. It provides an overview of various elements of ground-structure interaction that are pertinent for a refined design of both shallow and deep foundations, such as allowable displacements of structures, and ground-structure couplings.

This guide will be useful to practising engineers and experts in design offices, contracting companies and administrations, as well as students and researchers in civil engineering. Though its focus is generally on the French practice, it is more widely applicable to design based on, or generally in line with, Eurocode 7, with references to BS ENs.


Roger Frank is an Honorary Professor at Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC). From 1998 to 2004, he chaired the committee on Eurocode 7 on Geotechnical design.

Fahd Cuira is the Scientific Director of Terrasol (Setec group), France. Since 2018, he has been in charge of the course on the design of geotechnical structures at ENPC.

Sébastien Burlon is a Project Director at Terrasol (Setec group), France. He is involved in the evolution of Eurocode 7 and teaches several geotechnical courses, especially at ENPC

Additional Preface for the English Version

1 Actions for Limit State Design

1.1 Definition of actions
1.1.1 Permanent actions G
1.1.2 Actions due to groundwter
1.1.3 Lateral thrusts Gsp
1.1.4 Negative friction Gsn
1.1.5 Variable actions Q
1.1.6 Accidental actions A
1.1.7 Seismic actions AE
1.2 Combinations of actions
1.2.1 ULSs Fundamental combinations Combinations for accidental situations Combinations for seismic situations
1.2.2 SLSs Quasi-permanent combinations Characteristic combinations

2 Shallow Foundations

2.1 Definitions
2.2 Bearing capacity
2.2.1 From shear strength parameters (“c-φ” method) Strip footing – vertical and centred load Influence of the shape of the foundation: vertical and centred load 21tents Influence of load eccentricity and inclination Foundations on heterogeneous soils Foundations on a slope or close to the crest of a slope
2.2.2 Pressuremeter (M)PMT and penetrometer (CPT) methods: definitions Equivalent embedment height De Equivalent net limit pressure ple* with he Ménard pressuremeter M(PMT) Equivalent cone resistance qce with the cone penetrometer (CPT) 29
2.2.3 Conventional categories of soils
2.2.4 Bearing capacity design from the Ménard pressuremeter test ((M)PMT) Centred vertical load Influence of eccentricity ie Influence of load inclination iδ Influence of the proximity of a slope iβ Combination of iδ, iβ and ie
2.2.5 Design of the bearing capacity from the cone penetrometer (CPT)
2.2.6 Other methods
2.3 Determining settlement
2.3.1 Calculation methods of settlement
2.3.2 Solutions in elasticity Settlement of an isolated foundation on an elastic semi-infinite medium Case of a bilayer Distribution of settlement at surface Distribution of settlement at depth Distribution of vertical stress with depth
2.3.3 Indirect methods: estimating the elasticity moduli Correlations between the results from In-situ tests and the elasticity modulus Elasticity modulus variations as a function of deformation and stress levels
2.3.4 Direct design methods from soil tests Calculation of settlement from the results of the (M)PMT test Calculation of settlement from the results of the CPT test Calculation of settlement from the results of the SPT test Calculation of settlement from the results of the oedometer test
2.3.5 Using numerical models Finite element (or finite difference) method Hybrid methods
2.4 Structural design of shallow foundations
2.5 Verification of a shallow foundation
2.5.1 Limit states to be considered
2.5.2 Ground-related limit states Bearing capacity (ULS and SLS) Settlement and horizontal displacement (SLS) Sliding (ULS) Ground decompression (ULS and SLS) Overall stability (ULS)
2.5.3 Limit states related to the materials constituting the foundation
2.6 Construction provisions

3 Deep Foundations

3.1 Classification of deep foundations
3.1.1 Replacement piles Simple bored pile (and barrette executed in the same conditions) Pile bored with mud and barrette Cased bored pile Piers Continuous flight auger with simple rotation or double rotation Micropiles Injected large-diameter piles, under high pressure
3.1.2 Displacement piles Precast piles Open-ended or closed-ended steel piles Cast-in-situ driven piles Cast-in-situ screw piles Cased screw pile
3.1.3 Special piles
3.1.4 Identifying piles by class and category
3.2 Axially loaded isolated pile
3.2.1 Definitions Compressive and tensile resistances Creep limit load Equivalent embedment. Equivalent limit pressure and cone resistance
3.2.2 Conventional rigid-plastic theories
3.2.3 Predicting the bearing capacity and the creep limit load from a static load test 94 Principle equipment Loading programme Exploiting results
3.2.4 Design of bearing capacity from the (M)PMT Calculation of tip resistance Rb Calculation of friction resistance Rs
3.2.5 Bearing capacity design from the CPT Calculation of tip resistance Rb Design of friction resistance Rs
3.2.6 Using the results of dynamic soil tests Using results from dynamic penetration Using penetration tests made with a SPT sampler
3.2.7 Predicting the bearing capacity from pile driving Driving tests Wave propagation analysis
3.2.8 Settlement of an isolated pile (t-z method)
3.2.9 Assessing negative friction (downdrag) Limit unit negative friction qsn Simplified approach to assess maximum negative friction Displacement approach (generalised t-z method)
3.3 Laterally loaded isolated pile
3.3.1 Conventional rigid-plastic theory
3.3.2 Subgrade reaction modulus method (p-y method) Principle. Definitions Taking into account lateral thrusts Equilibrium equation Practical solution
3.3.3 Selection of the reaction curve Typical reaction curves Case of the (M)PMT Case of the CPT test Ground shear parameters Specific case of barrettes Modifications due to the proximity of a slope or near the surface
3.3.4 Assessing the free soil displacement g(z) Definitions Selection of the dimensionless displacement curve G(Z) Determining gmax. Piles executed before embankment construction Determining gmax. Piles executed after embankment construction
3.3.5 Boundary conditions Head conditions Tip conditions
3.3.6 Lateral load test
3.4 Behaviour of pile groups
3.4.1 Axial behaviour Bearing capacity of a pile group Tensile resistance of a group of piles Settlement of a pile group: elastic method Settlement of a pile group: Terzaghi’s empirical method Pile group subjected to negativefriction (downdrag)
3.4.2 Lateral behaviour Empirical methods Theoretical method (elasticity) Ground lateral thrusts on a group of piles
3.4.3 Load distribution on a pile group: simplified cases Simplifying hypotheses Case of a two-dimension isostatic foundation Case of a hyperstatic foundation
3.4.4 Load distribution on a pile group: use of reaction laws Principles Ground reaction laws Boundary conditions at pile tip and pile head
3.4.5 Use of numerical models Finite element (or finite difference) method Hybrid methods
3.5 Structural design of deep foundations
3.5.1 Design bases
3.5.2 Influence of non-linearities
3.6 Verification of a deep foundation
3.6.1 Limit states to be considered
3.6.2 Ground-related limit states Bearing capacity and tensile resistance of an isolated deep foundation (ULS and SLS) Concept of stability diagram under axial loading Bearing capacity of a pile group (ULS) Lateral behaviour (ULS and SLS) Overall stability (ULS)
3.6.3 Limit states related to the constitutive materials of the foundation (ULS and SLS) Concrete, grout or mortar of cast-in-situ deep foundations Concrete, grout or mortar of pre-cast deep foundations Steel for piles made of reinforced concrete Steel for other piles Buckling and second order effects (ULS)
3.6.4 Displacement (ULS and SLS)
3.7 Construction provisions and course of action
3.7.1 Types of piles
3.7.2 Dimensions. Inclination Diameter (or width) Length Inclination
3.7.3 Layout of the pile group
3.7.4 Specific recommendations for cast- in-situ piles and barrettes
3.7.5 Inspection of cast-in-situ piles and barrettes
3.7.6 Course of action for a deep foundation study
Annex 1. Taking into account the effect of negative shaft friction
A1.1 Isolated pile
A1.2 Unlimited group of piles
A1.3 Limited group of piles
Annex 2. Solutions for the design of laterally loaded piles – Homogeneous and linear ground
A2.1 Sign convention – general solution
A2.2 Flexible (or long) pile
A2.2.1 Solutions for a flexible pile without lateral thrusts (g(z) = 0)
A2.2.2 Solutions for a flexible pile with lateral thrusts (g(z) ≠ 0)
A2.3 Rigid (or short) pile
A2.3.1 Solutions for a short pile without lateral thrusts (g(z) = 0)
A2.3.2 Solutions for a short pile with ateral thrusts (g(z) ≠ 0)

4 Interactions with the Supported Structure

4.1 Allowable displacement
4.1.1 Introduction
4.1.2 Allowable displacement of foundations of buildings
4.1.3 Allowable displacement of bridge foundations
4.2 Soil-structure interactions
4.2.1 Boundary between “geotechnical” and “structural” models
4.2.2 Structures on isolated foundations Notion of stiffness matrix Stiffness matrix of a shallow footing Stiffness matrix of a deep foundation Taking non-linearities into account
4.2.3 Group effects
4.2.4 Structures founded on general rafts


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